Books Edited
Bertness, M.D., J.F. Bruno, B.R. Silliman, and J.J. Stachowicz (editors).  2013. Marine Community Ecology and Conservation. [link]


Sax, D.F., J.J. Stachowicz, and S.D. Gaines (editors). 2005. Species invasions: insights into ecology, evolution and biogeography. Sinauer Press, Sunderland MA. 495pp. [link]

Refereed papers

To comply with copyright rules, please limit the use of pdf files to printing of single copies for personal research and study. You may not modify the files in any way or use them for commercial purposes.


Reynolds, L.K. J.J. Stachowicz, A.R. Hughes, S.J. Kamel, B. Ort, and R.H. Grosberg. In Press. Temporal stability in patterns of genetic diversity and structure of a marine foundation species (Zostera marina). Heredity.

Reynolds, L.K., K. DuBois, J.M. Abbott, S.L. Williams, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2016. Response of a Habitat-Forming Marine Plant to a Simulated Warming Event is Delayed, Genotype Specific, and Varies with Phenology. PLoS ONE 11 (6), e0154532.[-pdf-]

Whalen, M.A., K.M. Aquilino, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2016. Grazer diversity interacts with biogenic habitat heterogeneity to accelerate intertidal algal succession. Ecology 97: 2136-2146.[-pdf-]

Rogers T.L., J.E. Byrnes, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2016. Native predators limit invasion of benthic invertebrate communities in Bodega Harbor, California, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 545:161-173.[-pdf-]

Lurig, M., R.J. Best, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2016. Microhabitat partitioning in seagrass mesograzers is driven by consistent species choices across multiple predator and competitor contexts. Oikos, in press. doi: 10.1111/oik.02932 [pdf]

Abbott, J.M. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2016. The relative importance of trait vs. genetic differentiation for the outcome of interactions among plant genotypes. Ecology 97: 84-94.[pdf]


Bulleri, F, J.F. Bruno, B. Silliman, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2015. Facilitation and the niche: implications for coexistence, range shifts and ecosystem functioning. Functional Ecology 30:70-78. [pdf]

Best, R.J., M.N. Stone, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2015. Predicting consequences of climate change for ecosystem functioning: variation across trophic levels, species, and individuals. Diversity and Distributions 21:1364-1374. [pdf]

Byers, J.E., R.S. Smith, J.M. Pringle, G.F. Clark, P.E. Gribben, C.L. Hewitt, G.J. Inglis, E.L. Johnston, G.M. Ruiz, J.J. Stachowicz, M.J. Bishop. 2015. Invasion Expansion: Time since introduction best predicts global ranges of marine invaders. Scientific Reports 5:12436 [-pdf-]

Duffy J.E., Reynolds P.L., Boström C., Coyer, J.A, Cusson M., Donadi S., Douglass J.G., Eklof, J., Engelen A., Eriksson B.K., Fredriksen S., Gamfeldt L., Gustafsson C., Hoarau G, Hori M., Hovel K., Iken K., Lefcheck J.S., Moksnes P-O, Nakaoka M., O’Connor M.I., Olsen J.L., Richardson J.P., Ruesink J.L., Sotka E.E., Thormar J., Whalen M.A., and Stachowicz J.J. 2015. Biodiversity and top-down control in eelgrass ecosystems: A global comparative experiment. Ecology Letters 18:696-705 [-pdf-]


Rius, M., E.E. Potter, J.D. Aguirre, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2014. Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles. Journal of Animal Ecology 83, 296–305.[-pdf-]

Best, R.J., A. Chaudoin, M.E. Bracken, M.H. Graham and J.J. Stachowicz. 2014. Plant-animal diversity relationships in a rocky intertidal system depend on invertebrate body size and algal cover. Ecology 95:1308-1322 [-pdf-]

Best, R.J. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2014. Phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence for the importance of food and habitat in the assembly of communities of herbivorous marine amphipods. Ecology 95:775–786 [-pdf-]

Afkhami, M.E., J. Rudgers, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2014. Multiple Mutualist Effects: Conflict and synergy in multispecies mutualisms. Ecology 95(4): 833-84 [-pdf-]


Duffy, J.E., L.A. Amaral-Zettler, D.G. Fautin, G. Paulay, T.A. Rynearson, H. Sosik, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2013. Envisioning a Marine Biodiversity Network. BioScience 63:350-361 [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J., S.J. Kamel, A.R. Hughes, and R.K. Grosberg. 2013. Genetic relatedness influences plant biomass accumulation in eelgrass (Zostera marina). American Naturalist. 181:715-724. [-pdf-]

Wicksten, M. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2013. Mimulus Stimpson, 1860, a junior synonym of Pugettia Dana, 1851 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialtidae). Zootaxa 3693:358-364 [-pdf-]

Best, R.J. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2013. Phylogeny as a proxy for ecology in seagrass amphipods: which traits are most conserved? PLoS ONE 8(3): e57550 [-pdf-]

Best R.J., N.C. Caulk, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2013. Trait versus phylogenetic diversity as predictors of competition and community composition in herbivorous marine amphipods. Ecology Letters 16:72-80. [-pdf-]


Olyarnik, S.V. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2012. Multi-year study of the effects of green macroalgal (Ulva sp.) blooms on eelgrass (Zostera marina). Marine Ecology Progress Series 486:107-117.[-pdf-]

Aquilino, K.M., M. Coulbourne, and J. J. Stachowicz. 2012. Mixed species diets enhance the growth of two rocky intertidal herbivores. Marine Ecology Progress Series 468:179-189.[-pdf-]

Edwards, K.F. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2012. Temporally varying larval settlement, competition, and coexistence in a sessile invertebrate community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 462: 93–102.[-pdf-]

Poore, A., A. Campbell, R. Coleman, G. Edgar, V. Jormalainen, P. Reynolds, E. Sotka, J. Stachowicz, R. Taylor, M. Vanderklift, J.E. Duffy. 2012. Global patterns in the impact of marine herbivores on benthic primary producers. Ecology Letters 15:912-922 [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. 2012. Niche expansion by positive interactions: realizing the fundamentals: a comment on Rodriguez-Cabal et al. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 5:42-43 [-pdf-]

Aquilino, K.M. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2012. Seaweed richness and herbivory increase rate of community recovery from disturbance. Ecology 93:879-890.[-pdf-]

Best, R.J. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2012. Trophic cascades in seagrass meadows depend on mesograzer variation in feeding rates, predation susceptibility, and abundance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 456:29-42.[-pdf-]

Kamel, S.J., A.R. Hughes, R.K. Grosberg, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2012. Fine-scale genetic structure and relatedness in the eelgrass Zostera marina. Marine Ecology Progress Series 447:127-137. [-pdf-]

Pruitt, J.N., J.J. Stachowicz, and A. Sih. 2012. Behavioral types of predator and prey jointly determine gprey survival: potential implications for the maintenance of within species behavioral variation. American Naturalist 179:217-227. [-pdf-]


Tomas-Nash F., J.M. Abbott, M. Balk, C. Steinberg, S.L. Williams, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2011. Plant genotype and nitrogen loading influence seagrass productivity, biochemistry, and plant-herbivore interactions. Ecology 92:1807-1817. [-pdf-]

Sorte, C.J.B and J.J. Stachowicz 2011. Patterns and processes of compositional change in a California epibenthic community. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 435:63-74. [-pdf-]

Hultgren, K. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2011. Camouflage in decorator crabs: Integrating ecological, behavioural and evolutionary approaches. Pages 214-229 in M. Stevens and S. Merlaita (eds). Animal Camouflage. Cambridge University Press. [-pdf-]

Edwards, K.F. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2011. Spatially stochastic settlement and the coexistence of benthic marine animals. Ecology 92:1094-1103. [-pdf-]

Claar, D.C., K.F. Edwards, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2011. Positive and negative effects of a dominant competitor on the settlement, growth, and survival of competing species in an epibenthic community. J. Exp. Marine Biology and Ecology 399:130-134.[-pdf-]

Hughes, A.R. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2011. Seagrass genotypic diversity increases disturbance response via complementarity and dominance. Journal of Ecology 99:445-453.[-pdf-]


Hughes, A.R., R.J. Best, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2010. Genotypic diversity and grazer identity interactively influence seagrass and grazer biomass. Marine Ecology Progress Series 403: 43-51. [-pdf-]

Edwards, K.F. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2010. Multivariate tradeoffs, succession, and phenological differentiation in a guild of colonial invertebrates. Ecology 91: 3146Ð3152.[-pdf-]

Edwards, K.F., K.M. Aquilino, R.J. Best, K.L. Sellheim, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2010. Prey diversity is associated with weaker consumer effects in a meta-analysis of benthic marine experiments. Ecology Letters 13:194-201 [-pdf-]

Hultgren, K.M. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2010. Size related habitat shifts facilitated by positive preference induction in a marine kelp crab. Behavioral Ecology 21: 329-336.[-pdf-]

Sellheim, K.L., J.J. Stachowicz and R.C. Coates. 2010. Effects of a non-native habitat-forming species on mobile and sessile epifaunal communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 398:69-80.[-pdf-]


Larson, A.A., J.J. Stachowicz and B.T. Hentschel. 2009. The effect of a tube-building phoronid on associated infaunal species diversity, composition and community structure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 381:126-135[-pdf-]

Byrnes, J.E. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2009. The Consequences of Consumer Diversity Loss: Different Answers From Different Experimental Designs. Ecology 90:2879-2888.[-pdf-]

Byrnes, J.E. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2009. Short and Long Term Consequences of Increases in Exotic Species Richness on Water Filtration by Marine Invertebrates. Ecology Letters 12:830-841.[-pdf-]

Palumbi, S.R., P.A. Sandifer, J.D. Allan, M.W. Beck, D.G. Fautin, M.J. Fogarty, B.S. Halpern, L.S. Incze, Jo-Ann Leong, E. Norse, J.J. Stachowicz, and D.H. Wall. 2009. Managing for ocean biodiversity to sustain marine ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4: 204-211.[-pdf-]

Hughes, A.R., J.J. Stachowicz, and S.L. Williams. 2009. Morphological and physiological variation among seagrass (Zostera marina) genotypes. Oecologia 159:725Ð733.[-pdf-]

Hughes, A.R. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2009. Ecological impacts of genotypic diversity in the clonal seagrass, Zostera marina. Ecology 90: 1412-1419.[-pdf-]

Hultgren, K. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2009. Evolution of decoration in majoid crabs: a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the role of body size and alternative defensive strategies. 173:566-578.[-pdf-]

Aquilino, K.M., M.E.S. Bracken, M. Faubel, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2009. Local-scale autochthonous nutrient inputs in an upwelling ecosystem facilitate seaweed growth on wave-exposed rocky shores. Limnology and Oceanography 59:304-317 [-pdf-]


Stachowicz, J.J., R.J. Best, M.E.S. Bracken, and M. H. Graham. 2008. Complementarity in marine biodiversity manipulations: reconciling divergent evidence from field and mesocosm experiments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105:18842-18847.[-pdf-]

Hultgren, K. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of the brachyuran crab superfamily Majoidea indicates close congruence with larval morphology-based trees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48:986-996. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J, M. Graham, M.E.S. Bracken, A.I. Szoboszlai. 2008. Diversity enhances cover and stability of seaweed assemblages: the importance of environmental heterogeneity and experimental duration. Ecology 89:3008-3019. [-pdf-]

Olyarnik SV, Bracken MES, Byrnes JE, Hughes AR, Hultgren KM, Stachowicz JJ (2008) Ecological factors affecting community invasibility. Pages 215-238 in: Rilov G, Crooks JA (eds) Biological invasions of marine ecosystems: ecological, management, and geographic perspectives. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany. [-pdf-]

Thornber C.S., E. Jones, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2008. Differences in herbivore feeding preferences across a vertical rocky intertidal gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 363:51-62. [-pdf-]

Hultgren, K. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2008. Alternative camouflage strategies mediate predation risk among closely related co-occurring kelp crabs. Oecologia. 155:519-528. [-pdf-]


Sax D.F., J.J. Stachowicz, J.H. Brown, J.F. Bruno, M.N. Dawson, S.D. Gaines, R.K. Grosberg, A.Hastings, R.D. Holt, M.M. Mayfield, M.I. OÕConnor, and W. R. Rice. 2007. Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22:465-471 [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J., J.F. Bruno, and J.E. Duffy. 2007. Consequences of biodiversity for marine communities and ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 38: 739-766. [-pdf-]

Fridley, J. D., J. J. Stachowicz, S. Naeem, D. F. Sax, E. W. Seabloom, M. D. Smith, T. J. Stohlgren, D. Tilman, and B. V. Holle. 2007. The invasion paradox: Reconciling Pattern andn Process in Species Invasions. Ecology 88:3-17. [-pdf-] Hughes, A.E., J.E. Byrnes, D. L. Kimbro, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2007. Reciprocal relationships and potential feedbacks between biodiversity and disturbance. Ecology Letters 10:849- 864. [-pdf-]

Byrnes, J.E., Reynolds, P.L. and Stachowicz, J.J. 2007. Invasions and extinctions reshape coastal food webs. PloS One 2(3):e295. [-pdf-]

Bracken, M.E.S., C.A. Gonzalez-Dorantes, and J.J. Stachowicz. 2007. Whole community mutualism: Associated invertebrates facilitate a dominant habitat-forming seaweed. Ecology 88:2211-2219. [-pdf-]

Nydam, M.L. and Stachowicz, J.J. 2007. Predator effects on fouling community development. Marine Ecology Progress Series 337:93-101. [-pdf-]

Bracken MES, Stachowicz JJ. 2007. Top-down modification of bottom-up processes: selective grazing reduces macroalgal nitrogen uptake. Marine Ecology Progress Series 330:75-82. [-pdf-]

Worm, B. E.B. Barbier, N. Beaumont, J.E. Duffy, C. Folke, B.S. Halpern, J.B.C. Jackson, H.K. Lotze, F. Micheli, S.R. Palumbi, E. Sala, K.A. Selkoe, J.J. Stachowicz, and R. Watson. 2007. Response to comments on “Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services”. Science 317:1283-1284. [-zip-]


Worm, B. E.B. Barbier, N. Beaumont, J.E. Duffy, C. Folke, B.S. Halpern, J.B.C. Jackson, H.K. Lotze, F. Micheli, S.R. Palumbi, E. Sala, K.A. Selkoe, J.J. Stachowicz, and R. Watson. 2006. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787-791. [-pdf-]

Bracken, M.E.S. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2006. Seaweed diversity enhances nitrogen uptake via complementary use of nitrate and ammonium. Ecology 87:2397-2403 [-pdf-]

Thornber, C.S., J.J. Stachowicz, and S.D. Gaines. 2006. Tissue type matters: selective herbivory on different life history stages of an isomorphic alga. Ecology 87:2255-2263 [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. and J.E. Byrnes. 2006. Species diversity, invasion success and ecosystem functioning: disentangling the influence of resource competition, facilitation and extrinsic factors. Marine Ecology Progress Series 311: 251-262 [-pdf-]

Duffy, J.E. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2006. Why biodiversity is important to oceanography: potential roles of genetic, species, and trophic diversity in pelagic ecosystem processes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 311: 179-189

Byrnes, J.E., J.J. Stachowicz, K. Hultgren, A.R. Hughes, S.V. Olyarnik and C.S. Thornber. 2006. Predator diversity enhances kelp forest trophic cascades by modifying herbivore behavior. Ecology Letters 9:61-71 [-pdf-]

2005 and earlier

Stachowicz, J.J. and D. Tilman. 2005. What species invasions tell us about the relationship between community saturation, species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Pages 41-64 In: D. Sax, J. Stachowicz and S. Gaines (eds) Species invasions: insights into ecology, evolution and Biogeography. Sinauer, Sunderland MA.

Stachowicz, J.J. and R.B. Whitlatch. 2005. Multiple mutualists provide complementary benefits that enhance to their seaweed host. Ecology 86:2418-2427 [-pdf-]

Hughes, A.R. and J.J. Stachowicz. 2004. Genetic diversity enhances the resistance of a seagrass ecosystem to disturbance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:8998-9002. [-pdf-]

Thornber, C.S., B.P. Kinlan, M.H. Graham and J. J. Stachowicz. 2004. Population ecology of the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida in California: environmental and biological controls on demography. Marine Ecology Progress Series 268:69-80. [-pdf-]

Bruno, J.F., J.J. Stachowicz and M.D. Bertness. 2003. Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:119-125. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J., J. R. Terwin, R. B. Whitlatch and R.W. Osman. 2002. Linking climate change and biological invasions: ocean warming facilitates non-indigenous species invasion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:15497- 15500. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J., H. Fried, R.B. Whitlatch and R.W. Osman. 2002. Biodiversity, invasion resistance and marine ecosystem function: reconciling pattern and process. Ecology 83:2575-2590. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. 2001. Mutualisms, positive interactions, and the structure of ecological communities. BioScience 51:235-246. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. 2001. Chemical Ecology of Mobile Marine Invertebrates: predators and prey, allies and competitors. Pages 153-190 in B. Baker and K McClintock, editors, Marine Chemical Ecology, CRC Press.

Stachowicz, J.J. and M.E. Hay. 2000. Geographic variation in camouflaging behavior by the decorator crab Libinia dubia. American Naturalist 156:59-71. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. and N. Lindquist. 2000. Hydroid defenses against predators: the importance of secondary metabolites vs. nematocysts. Oecologia 124:280-288.

Stachowicz, J.J., R.B. Whitlatch, and R.W. Osman. 1999. Species diversity and invasion resistance in a marine ecosystem. Science 286:1577-1579. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. and M.E. Hay. 1999. Reduced mobility is associated with compensatory feeding and increased diet breadth of marine crabs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188:169-178. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. and M.E. Hay. 1999. Mutualism and coral persistence in algal- dominated habitats: the role of herbivore resistance to algal chemical defense. Ecology 80: 2085-2101. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. and M.E. Hay. 1999. Reducing predation through chemically-mediated camouflage: indirect effects of plant defenses on herbivores. Ecology 80:495-509. [-pdf-]

Hay, M.E., J.J. Stachowicz, E. Cruz-Rivera, S. Bullard, M. Deal, and N. Lindquist. 1998. Bioassays with marine and freshwater macro-organisms. Pages 39-141, in: J.G. Millar and K.F. Haynes (eds) Methods in Chemical Ecology. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Stachowicz, J.J. and N. Lindquist. 1997. Chemical defense among hydroids on pelagic Sargassum: predator deterrence and absorption of solar UV radiation by secondary metabolites. Marine Ecology Progress Series 155:115-126. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. and M.E. Hay. 1996. Facultative mutualism between an herbivorous crab and a coralline alga: advantages of eating noxious seaweeds. Oecologia 105:377-387. [-pdf-]

Stachowicz, J.J. and T.D. Allison 1995. Vegetation, browsing, and site factors as determinants of Canada yew (Taxus canadensis) distribution in central New Hampshire. Rhodora 97:357-374.